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The Scarlet Letter (Reading & Training)

Black Cat Publishing owned this.
Educational Purpose 

Video SparkNotes: Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter summary

The Scarlet Letter Trailer 1995

The original trailer of The Scarlet Letter directed by Roland Joffé and starring Demi Moore, Gary Oldman, Robert Duvall, Edward Hardwicke and Lisa Andoh.

Next Vista (May 2020 Newsletter)

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Video Presentation Spelling of –ing and –ed forms

Spelling of –ing and –ed forms.

Hello! I'm Erica and I will be your grammar coach.

In this chapter, we talk about the simple and progressive verb forms.
The regular simple past verbs end in –
The progressive verbs end in –
Let's talk about the spelling rules for these verb forms.
Here is the first rule.
If a verb ends in –
e, drop the e and add –ing or –ed.
Let's look at some examples:
hope - hoping - hoped
increase - increasing - increased
Be careful! If a verb ends in –ee, do not drop the final –e. The verbs agreeing and agreed still have two
Second rule:
For verbs that end in one vowel followed by one consonant, we double the consonant.
For example,
stop ends with one vowel, o, and one consonant, p, so we need to use two p's.
stop - stopping - stopped
Let's look at a couple more examples:
chat - chatting - chatted
rob - robbing - robbed
If the verb ends with –w or –x, do not double the consonant. The verbs showed and showing have only
w. The verbs fixed and fixing have only one x.
Rule number three:
If there are two vowels together before the final consonant, then we do not double the final consonant.
For example, the verb
rain has two vowels, a and i, so there is no change when we add the verb endings:
rain - raining - rained
Let's look at some more examples:
need - needing - needed
boil - boiling - boiled
Rule number four:
If there are two consonants, then there is no change. The verb
start ends in two consonants, r and t, so
there is no change when we add the verb endings:
start - starting - started
Another example is fold:
fold - folding - folded
Now let's look at two syllable words. The spelling rules are a little tricky.
For two-syllable words, listen for the stressed syllable. The stressed syllable sounds longer than the
unstressed syllable. Is the first or second syllable stressed in the verb
happen? Listen again. Happen. It's
the first syllable, right?
Listen to the pronunciation if the second syllable has stress:
ha- PPEN. That's a little strange, isn't it?
How about the verb
offer? Offer. Again, the first syllable is stressed. Offer.
When the first syllable is stressed, do not change the verb. Just add –
ing or –ed.
happen - happening - happened
offer - offering - offered
listen - listening - listened
How about the verb regret? Which syllable is stressed? Listen again. Regret.
The second syllable is stressed. The second syllable is also stressed in a word
prefer. Can you hear the
word stress?
When the second syllable is stressed, add another consonant.
regret - regretting - regretted
prefer - preferring - preferred
Do you know the rule for verbs that end in –y?
If a vowel comes before the –
y, don't change the spelling.
play - playing - played
enjoy - enjoying - enjoyed
But if a consonant comes before the –y, change the –y to –i and then add –ed. Do not change the –y
before –ing.
study - studying - studied
try - trying - tried
For verbs that end in –ie, change the –ie to –y and add –ing. For the regular past tense form, do not
change the spelling. Just add the letter –
tie - tying - tied
lie - lying - lied

I hope you enjoyed your first lesson. Keep practicing! See you again soon.

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